Slot Machine Payout Ratio

Slot machine payout ratio
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Soon afterward, another version was produced with patriotic symbols, such as flags and wreathson the wheels. Slots presented in the catalog of the casino, have original storylines and high-quality graphics.Slot machines are typically programmed to pay out as winnings. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc. Striggles [11] are both used in criminal law classes to illustrate the concept of reliance upon authority as it relates to the axiomatic ignorantia juris non excusat "ignorance of the law is no excuse".

In the U. Who wants to send me a picture of the label? The fact that the odds are against the players doesn't stop them from playing. This means you will have 6 symbols which are the same as Best slot games app least one other symbol. As more and more casinos are disclosing their slot paybacks, players are coming to expect it, and the websites that rank and rate online casinos are starting to include payback-disclosure in their rating criteria.

Symbols and other bonus features of the game are typically aligned with the theme. Newer machines often allow players to choose from a selection of denominations on a splash screen or menu. In other words, you might expect to see 10 different symbols in 10 spins, or a different symbol on every spin. New regulations have seemed to open the door to slots that can be configured more easily by the casino, so that casinos don't have to specify the payback percentage when they order the machine.

Slot machine payout ratio

Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Consider if you had a reel you have some symbols which you want to assign to the stops. Multi-line slot machines have become more popular since the s.

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It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine. It contained five drums holding a total of 50 card faces and was based on poker.

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The first of these, also called the "Liberty Bell", was produced by the manufacturer Herbert Mills in Bymany "bell" machines had been installed in most cigar stores, saloons, bowling alleys, brothels and barber shops. The machine is then activated by means of a lever or button either physical or on a touchscreenwhich activates reels that spin and stop to rearrange the symbols.

Here's a more detailed analysis of how the payback on a machine is calculated.

slot machine meaning

With video machines, the fixed payout values are multiplied by the number of coins per line that is being bet. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game. Traditional three-reel slot machines commonly have one, three, or five paylines while video slot machines may have 9, 15, 25, or as many as different paylines.

Most accept variable numbers of credits to play, with 1 to 15 credits per line being typical. By the way, at the time I'm writing this, this is the only article on the net that shows both of these figures together. Incidentally, those are also the only slots on the Strip which accept and pay in coins. The payout percentage varies.

There is nothing more to it, but. Symbols vary depending on the theme of the machine. Confusingly, most people use the same term to refer to both of these different concepts, calling them both "the return" or "RTP", which stands for "Return to Player". To enjoy the financial benefits, players should always check a winning probability before starting an actual game.

Slot machine payout ratio

The slot maker might offer the same slot in various flavors, like You could have two seemingly identical machines, side by side, that are set to different paybacks. During all this time, this type of games have evolved and improved, resulting in Free seven slots classic slots have acquired new features and even became available online.

The machines that have the higher denominations usually give the best payouts. In the short term anything can happen, but the longer you play, the closer you'll get to the machine's predicted average. Note that the longer you play, the closer your return will get to the payback. Slots-A-Fun used to have If you know of a land casino which advertises specific paybacks without the "up to" qualifier, please let me know and send me a picture!

The player would need to spin times on average before they win. Despite the display of the result of the next use on the machine, the courts ruled that "[t]he machine appealed to the player's propensity to gamble, and that is [a] vice. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players. To getting this to work on multiple reels you need to multiply the winning probability of each reel. In your case, if you have 22 stops and 16 symbols.

The Liberty Bell machine was so popular that it was copied by many slot machine manufacturers. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops", excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box".

slot machine payout calculator

One of the most popular places for gambling entertainment is 7bitcasino login. To do this, you need to work out the probability for each reel, and then multiply the probabilities together. The reels always land on a random combination, and it's the frequency of the symbols on the reels, married to the paytable, which determines the payback of the machine. Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager.

Typically, a drop bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines.

how do slot machines work

Popular progressive games can offer top payouts. After all, why would you want to play somewhere completely in the dark when VideoSlots is happy to clue Slot machine payout ratio in? This machine used a modified inch 48 cm Sony Trinitron color receiver for the display and logic boards for all slot-machine functions. Lets say you wanted the player to win only when all three reels show the winning symbol at the same time.

Some games allow the free spins bonus to "retrigger", which adds additional spins on top of those already awarded. Bonuses and the number of bonus features vary depending upon the game. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Consider an example of 3 reels with 10 symbols on each reel, and 1 winning symbol on each reel as in the previous example.

With this information it's quite straight-forward to work out the payout. This virtual gambling establishment can boast a large assortment of gambling games, most of which are the online version of the one-armed bandits. Terminology[ edit ] A bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination.

One-armed bandits have been known to mankind for many decades. Unlike some other games, they're fixed. The minimum and maximum paybacks are as follows: slot machines: 80%%; video blackjack and video poker: 83% to %; and keno: 75% to %. This set of symbols proved highly popular and was used by other companies that began to make their own slot machines: CailleWatling, Jennings and Pace.

If you picked 1 symbol to be the "winning" symbol, the player would have to play 10 times before they won. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded. Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards that they held, the player hoping for a good poker hand. Paybacks There are two kinds of ways to measure how much a slot machine gives back to the player: the amount it actually gave back over some period of time, or the amount it would give back if it were played for an infinite amount of time.

The machine automatically calculates the number of credits the player receives in exchange for the cash inserted. We know from the previous example that the probability is 1 in We see that there is a much lower probability of the winning symbol appearing on all three reels at the same time.

Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down. A hand pay refers to a payout made by an De bedste 5 line online slots dk or at an exchange point "cage"rather than by the slot machine itself.

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  1. All of the. Casino slot machines typically have the highest payouts at 95%. This means that for every dollar you put in, the machine is programmed to give back 95% of it at.Live Pokies With Welcome Bonus Payout Ratio The minimum and maximum paybacks are as follows: slot machines: 80%%; video blackjack and video poker: 83% to %; and keno: 75% to %.
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Determine Slot Payout Percentage by Tracking Your Play · First, you need to know your spins per hour. How do odds work in slot machines? After a few years, the devices were banned in California, but Fey still could not keep up with the demand for them from elsewhere. There's no way to tell the difference by just looking at them.

Slot machine payout ratio

A bell was retained, and a picture of a stick of Double down free slots Gum, the origin of the bar symbol, was also present. The credit meter is a display of the amount of money or number of credits on Slot machine payout ratio machine. There is no theoretical limit to the number of free spins obtainable.

Your favorite online slot has a payout percentage of 90%. Some themes are licensed from popular media franchisesincluding films, television series including game shows such as Wheel of Fortuneentertainers, and musicians. With reel machines, the only way to win the maximum jackpot is to play the maximum number of coins usually three, sometimes four or even five coins per spin.

Some games may have other features that can also trigger over the course of free spins. In essence, that is what payout percentage is. Let's say there are 64 stops on each reel. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date. The average payback percentage from slot machines is important to gamblers, slots achieve an average payout ratio of 87% per machine.

It doesn't matter what order the symbols are in in theory, in practice the randomness of the game is only as good as your random number generator. However you play, the odds of winning do not go up or down, but always stay the. This is often accomplished by mixing reels with different probabilities. Taken over a long enough time the machine will pay the correct amount on on average. The state doesn't report each casino separately rats!

Most slot games have a theme, such as a specific aestheticlocation, or character. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay. Plaque marking the location of Charles Fey 's San Francisco workshop, where he invented the three-reel slot machine. Progressive slot machines usually take between 1% and 3% of every wager to seed the jackpot.

The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. For clarity, some people refer to the latter concept as the "theoretical return", but that's a horribly cumbersome phrase. That percentage can range from as little as 75 percent up to around 98 percent. Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players.

slot machine meaning

There's no guarantee that the symbol will appear in exactly 10 spins, it may take or spins, or even just 1 spin to appear. The latter are typically known as "high limit" machines, and machines configured to allow for such wagers are often located in dedicated areas which may have a separate team of attendants to cater to the needs of those who play there.

A candle is a light on top of the slot machine. How the payback is calculated The payback on a machine comes from the odds of hitting each winning combination, times how much those combos pay. The formula for calculating the probability is the same as before, just remember to use the correct ratios for each reel.

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As an example lets say you have 15 unique symbols, and 7 which are all duplicates. And that's all there is to it.One click and you're in. Most of these games have a hexagonal reel formation, and much like multi-way games, any patterns not played are darkened out of use. So instead of each reel having the same number of each symbol, one reel might have more symbols, or more of one type of symbol, and so on. Carousel refers to a grouping of slot machines, usually in a circle or oval formation.

Popular progressive games can offer top payouts.

What Slot Machines Payout The Most

50 Best Payout Slots - Which Slot Machines have the best payouts?First, I would like to clarify what slots payout percentages is. Slots payout percentages is an indicator that expresses the percentage of your bets placed to your winnings. Knowing the payout percentage of the slot machine, you can roughly understand how much of the money you spent on the game will return to you after some indefinite period of time. I want to emphasize that this period of time is INDEFINITE. It can be either spins or 10, You can and should be guided by this indicator, but do not take the specified payout percentage of the slots too literally. I think many of you have already guessed that Payout Percentages of slot is the same as RTP (Return to Player). Those of our users who have read my previous article on slots RTP can safely move on to the next section, because I think that you have already figured it out. For those who still do not understand anything in this topic, I will try to explain in a nutshell what Slot Machine Payout is, in other words, RTP. Each slot has its own Payout Percentages. Let's consider the following example: RTP (Payout Percentages) of one of the best paying slot machine - Lost Vegas by Microgaming- is 96. What does this tell us. This tells us that by betting , for some indefinite number of spins you make, you can win Again, you cannot know exactly how many spins are needed, since this indicator is calculated by the slot manufacturer for a different number of spins, and sometimes this number reaches tens of thousands of spins. But this does not mean that you need to make 10, spins to get back 96 of your money spent. Do not forget that playing slot machines is more dependent on luck. You can make 10 spins and hit the jackpot, or you can spin the reels for hours without winning anything. Payout Percentage is an extremely important indicator that you should be guided by when choosing a slot machine in order to understand whether it is worth playing it, or is it better to look for another slot. 50 Best Payout SlotsBelow, I give a table with TOP 50 Slot Machines with Best Payouts. They are all top-rated slot games. You can safely choose any of them for the game. However, do not rush to play for real money right away. You can try any of these slot machines on our website and make sure that it suits you. It is completely free and does not require registration. RankNameProviderPayout Percentage1Goblins CavePlaytech2Ugga BuggaPlaytech3Ohh Ahh DraculaBarcrest994Monopoly Big EventBarcrest995Mega JokerNetEnt996CineRamaPlaytech7Triple ProfitsPlaytech8Tropic ReelsPlaytech9Jackpot NetEnt10Chess MateMulti Slot11 Uncharted SeasThunderkick12Classic CinemaMulti Slot13CowboySmartSoft Gaming14Sheik Yer MoneyBarcrest15Golden ChiefBarcrest16Marching LegionsRelax Gaming17Santa 3;31X2gaming18Gold RushRival19Jewel In The Crown StrikeBarcrest9820Reelem In. Lobster PottyBarcrest9821Win Sum Dim SumMicrogaming9822Legend Of Big FootBarcrest9823Rock OnRival9824Blood SuckersNetEnt9825JokerizerYggdrasil Gaming9826Cash GardenMulti Slot27Sweets amp; SpinsMulti Slot28StarmaniaNextGen Gaming29Kitty Cash1X2gaming30Good Girl Bad GirlBetsoft31Zeus Lightning Power ReelsRed Tiger Gaming32White RabbitBig Time Gaming33Golden Tour SlotPlaytech34Sugar PopBetSoft35Macau High RolleriSoftBet36Gypsy RoseBetSoft37Devil;s DelightNetEnt38Quest to the WestBetSoft39Big Bad WolfQuickSpin40White RabbitBig Time Gaming41Wild WheelPush Gaming42Rome Caesars GloryPlayson43Roman LegionBally Wulff44Vegas HotWazdan45Lucky ZodiacAmatic Industries9646Lost VegasMicrogaming964720 Super HotEGT Interactive48Lord of the OceanNovomatic49Crazy Vegas SlotRealTime Gaming9550CleopatraGameplay Interactive95How to Find Payout Percentage of the Slots?It is very easy to find Payout Percentages of the slot, this information is publicly available on the Internet. The problem is different ; this information is not always reliable. I don;t know why this is happening. Perhaps some sites deliberately overestimate this indicator in order to lure the player to their site, or perhaps the point is trivial inattention. Therefore, I always recommend our users to check any information from several sources. Believe me, it is better to spend 5 minutes more searching for the information you need than to find information that does not correspond to reality. I would like to remind you that you can always find Payout Percentages of the slot on our website in the Online Slots section. Our experts are attentive to such important details as the characteristics of slot machines. Therefore, you can be sure that the information provided on our website is always true and up-to-date. However, if you do not find the slot you are interested in on our site, I recommend looking for it only on the site of the slot machine developer. As you already understood, finding a slot with good payouts is not difficult, and you can do it yourself by looking for the payout percentages of slot machines. Usually, this figure ranges from 90 to 99.

Its electromechanical workings made Money Honey the first slot machine with a bottomless hopper and automatic payout of up to coins without the help of an attendant. That's the theory in a nutshell. Las Vegas slot returns.Etymology[ edit ] The "slot machine" term derives from the slots on the machine for inserting and retrieving coins. Because of the vast number of possible wins in the original poker-based game, it proved practically impossible to make a machine capable of awarding an automatic payout for all possible winning combinations.

But for slot machines, you'll be flying blind, because that's the way the casinos like it, and no regulatory body in the U. Slots-A-Fun casino, seemingly in the s. It's not unexpected to see spaces with payout rates in the high 90s which is much harder to discover, in actuality.

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How many of each symbol is on each reel is really up to you. The location is a California Historical Landmark. That is absolutely not how it works. The rest is balancing balancing the different probabilities to make the game appear more interesting. The goal is to balance the number of symbols and stops so the machine feels less random to the player, and like they have more of a chance.

Today, play slot machines can all comers, simply by going to the website of any online casino with a computer, tablet or smartphone. We'll use an old three-reel slot to make the example easy. Classic symbols include objects such as fruits, bells, and stylized lucky sevens. Other multi-way games use a 4x5 or 5x5 pattern, where there are up to five symbols in each reel, allowing for up to 1, and 3, ways to win respectively.

This means that for every dollar you put in, the machine is programmed to give back 95% of it at. Paybacks are secret at U. Which is ridiculous.

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Sittman and Pitt of BrooklynNew York developed a gambling machine in that was a precursor to the modern slot machine. It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button. Ellis [10] and State v. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled Hot 777 slots. All of the.

To improve the odds for the house, two cards were typically removed from the deckthe ten of spades and the jack of heartsdoubling the odds against winning a royal flush. So how do we talk about these two different concepts? The two Iowa cases of State v. Unfortunately, VideoSlots doesn't take U.

VideoSlots was probably the first to do so, and now other online casinos are forced to follow suit in order to compete. Unused coin hoppers can still be found even on games that exclusively employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a vestige. We know the odds for games like blackjack, craps, and roulette, because we know the "programming" behind those games and they can be analyzed.

How the paybacks are set For decades, a casino would order a machine with a specific payback from the manufacturer. A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a designated symbol landing anywhere on the reels, rather than falling in sequence on the same payline.Activity Slot machines: what can the values of the maximum payout odds tell? Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player.

It's easy to. The 3. In other words: on a reel machine, the odds are more favorable if the gambler plays with the maximum number of coins available. You bet $ On average, the machine will return $90 in winnings to the player. Some online casinos, like VideoSlotspublishes both the return and the payback for their machines. Fortune Coin Co. Slot machines based on the game show Wheel of Fortune in Las Vegas RAY 's Ruusu and Tuplapotti slot machines in Finland Depending on the machine, the player can insert cash or, in " ticket-in, ticket-out " machines, a paper ticket with a barcodeinto a designated slot on the machine.

Las Vegas slot returns Vegas casinos are required to report their returns to the state Gaming Commission. There was no direct payout mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a free beer, whereas a royal flush could pay out cigars or drinks; the prizes were wholly dependent upon what the establishment would offer. For this reason, several gumball and other vending machines were regarded with mistrust by the courts. Goldfish slots cheats for coins, be aware that all video gaming including video poker, video keno, etc.

So, between the nickel and quarter slots, for example, the.It's easiest to work with one reel, and then extend it to multiple reels once you understand how it works. Later, a similar machine called the Operator's Bell was produced that included the Slot machine payout ratio of adding a gum -vending attachment. The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine.

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The machine proved extremely popular, and soon many bars in the city had one or more of them. Even so, there's no reason to believe that casinos constantly tinker with the Slot machine payout ratio, tightening them up during busy times. See Slot Machine River monster slots for more. So on this site, I've defined my own terms, for clarity.

Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won. One of the main differences between video slot machines and reel machines is in the way payouts are calculated. If we played through every combination exactly once, on our hypothetical machine we'd wincoins. A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator.

If a player matches a winning combination of symbols, the player earns credits based on the paytable. Casino slot machines typically have the highest payouts at 95%. On mechanical slot machines, this is usually a seven-segment displaybut video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the game's theme and user interface.

Percentage Return To Player (%RTP) can be thought of as part of the money paid to play the machine that is then given back to the player as. MEAL book Machine entry authorization log is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. The drums could also be rearranged to further reduce a player's chance of winning. The paybacks can be set remotely over the network, without the older, cumbersome method of physically replacing an EPROM chip and filling out a bunch of paperwork.

Returns vs. Multi-way games may be configured to allow players to bet by-reel: for example, on a game with a 3x5 pattern often referred to as a way gameplaying one reel allows all three symbols in the first reel to potentially pay, but only the center row pays on the remaining reels often designated by darkening the unused portions of the reels. A coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held.

In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. Now remember that this is all based on average.

types of gambling machines

After some modifications to defeat cheating attempts, the video slot machine was approved by the Nevada State Gaming Commission and eventually found popularity on the Las Vegas Strip and in downtown casinos. These machines have more than one payline, meaning that visible symbols that are not aligned on the main horizontal may be considered as winning combinations.

The higher the amount bet, the higher the payout will be if the player wins. Free spins are usually triggered via a scatter Slot machine payout ratio at least three designated symbols with the number of spins dependent on the number of symbols that land. And I know, because I've programmed them. At some time between and[5] Charles Fey of San FranciscoCalifornia devised a much simpler automatic mechanism [6] with three spinning reels containing a total of five symbols: horseshoesdiamondsspades, hearts and a Liberty Bell ; the bell gave the machine its name.

Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or other special features if certain conditions are met over time by players on that machine. Progressive slot machines usually take between 1% and 3% of every wager to seed the jackpot. A variation involves patterns where symbols pay adjacent to one another. For the nickel slots, the second line is from the Wizard's survey of nickel slots, not including video poker.

The exact probability of any particular symbol appearing depends on the total number of occurrences of that symbol on the reel. By replacing ten cards with five symbols and using three reels instead of five drums, the complexity of reading a win was considerably reduced, allowing Fey to design an effective automatic payout mechanism. The first production units went on trial at the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel.

Slot machine payout ratio

Liberty Bell was a huge success and spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry. Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. The art of making the game engaging is in creating more opportunities to win with varying amounts.

slot machine payout calculator

A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. As the gum offered was fruit-flavored, fruit symbols were placed on the reels: lemonscherriesoranges and plums. Online, it's much different. Every spin is completely random, and it's that randomness that results in the specified long-term payback. The chance of getting one particular symbol is 1 in So for every 10 spins, you can expect to see each individual symbol once.

Use your phone timer to clock yourself for. More symbols on a reel will lead to greater control over the final results, but will feel more random to the player. If you had 10 symbols and 10 stops, each symbol would have a 1 in 10 chance of appearing. Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes.

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The prototype was mounted in a full-size, show-ready slot-machine cabinet.

hollywood_casino.jpgView full sizeDAN GLEITER, The Patriot-News/fileHollywood Casino at Penn National in Dauphin County

At

Hollywood Casino

, people started gambling less on slots machines this August and have continued to wager fewer of their hard-earned dollars on slots ever since.

The total amount wagered on slots at the casino since August is down by over $93 million — or over 9 percent — from the same months last year.

Part of that is due to live

table games such as poker and black jack

opening at the casino in July, and the subsequent removal of electronic table games.

But given the decline in money wagered on slots, one might expect the house take — and the state’s share of the house take — from slots to be down as well.

One would be wrong.

In the same four months, the casino and the state have taken in more money from slots than they did last year.

Last week, the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board released the numbers for November showing yet another increase in slots revenue over the same month last year.

How?

The paradox is explained by two factors: Hollywood Casino has been giving away fewer free plays, and people have been winning less.

The payout ratio for slots machines at Hollywood Casino has been dropping slowly but steadily for over three years.

The slots machines at Hollywood paid out percent of the money fed into them in That dropped to percent the following year, and again to percent in

Last month, the overall slots payout ratio at Hollywood was percent, after dipping to an all-time monthly low of percent in October.

Because the total amount of money gambled is so high, even small changes in the payout percentage means big bucks for the casino and the state.

Since July, the payout ratio at Hollywood has decreased less than three tenths of one percent, but that has resulted in over $ million more for the casino.

Under state law, every slot machine must pay out a minimum of 85 percent of the money wagered on it over the course of its life.

Casinos may set payout rates as they choose above that 85 percent legal minimum.

The Slot machine payout ratio payout rate represents the mix of various machines on the casino floor as well as how much they are played.

Small denomination machines — the penny games, for instance — usually have a lower payout rate than higher denomination machines.

But the precise ratio on each machine is determined by the casino.

It’s all about marketing, said Michael Cruz, director of gaming laboratory operations for the Pennsylvania Gaming Control Board.

“You have savvy players out there,” he said.

A player who was recently in Atlantic City may notice that the same game at Hollywood pays more — or less — for a winning combination.

Casinos can set their ratios to compete with other casinos.

Cruz said that he and his team of 17 technicians spend 70 percent of their time testing to make sure the slots machines are adhering to the statistical percent payout set by law.

The cost of that work is paid not by Pennsylvania taxpayers, but rather by the companies that manufacture the games, Cruz said.

So long as the overall payout ratio remains over 85 percent, the casinos have latitude to alter the mix of games - and payout ratios - on their gaming floor to match their players.

“At the end of the game, it’s all marketing — that magic number that sells a product,” said Cruz.

“We don’t want to get involved with that. Fortune five slot their business. They know their patrons better than I possibly could know.”

John Newman, vice president of casino operations for Penn Fake casino slots Gaming, which runs Hollywood Casino, said the decreasing payout ratio reflects a gradual migration of casino goers to lower denomination machines that have a lower payout.

What’s more, he said, the casino has added more of those low denomination, low payout games that are increasingly popular.

“We look at what games are most popular, and we change out games based on popularity,” said Newman.

With more penny games on the floor and more people playing them, the overall payout ratio decreases.

But a casino may also change the payout ratio on an existing game any time it likes, so long as it follows the proper procedures set by the Gaming Control Board.

“You can’t just have an attendant go in and push a button,” explained Cruz.

Changing the payout ratio on an existing game requires extensive paperwork procedures, including notifications to field staff, casino compliance representatives and the central control computer system.

Resetting the ratio involves resetting the computer that runs the game — clearing the Random Access Memory, or RAM.

“In PC terms, you’re formatting the whole machine to start from scratch,” said Cruz.

“The computer system will notice a reset to zero And if there’s no paperwork, it will be flagged as an illegal RAM clear.”

So have the owners of Hollywood Casino been recalibrating their games to pay out less?

Newman says no.

He said the casino has not lowered payout ratios on existing games.

“We don’t go in with the goal of changing the payout ratio,” said Newman.

Rather it’s the combination of customer migration to cheaper machines, the casino stocking more of those machines and the removal of the table games slots that’s behind those numbers, he said.

That’s feasible and perhaps even likely, said Bill LaPenta, director of financial analysis at Spectrum Gaming in Linwood, New Jersey.

Spectrum publishes the East Coast Slots Report, an industry newsletter on casinos in the Atlantic region.

“It’s not completely uniform, but overall payout percentages have trended down somewhat” throughout the Atlantic region,” LaPenta said. “The changes have been slight, but they are there.”

“To be honest,” he said, “Hollywood’s explanation of players trending to lower denomination machines is probably a large part of it.

We don’t see any great coordinated plan or conspiracy of any kind among the operators. It’s been a slight trend overall, and not uniform.”

LaPenta said the overall average payout rate for the Atlantic region in the last three or four months has been percent, higher than Hollywood’s and higher than Pennsylvania’s overall average of percent.

Pennsylvania’s overall payout ratio dropped after the advent of live table games in July, said LaPenta, because of the removal of the electronic table game machines.

“Electronic table games have a much lower hold percentage for the house than traditional slot machines,” he said.

When those games came out of the slot product mix, the “blended average” payout for the casino floor dropped accordingly.

But LaPenta said there has been a “resurgence in popularity” of the low denomination, low payout machines, which has been affecting the payout rate.

The trend predates table games and even the recession.

“Twenty-five years ago, nickel machines were common in Atlantic City,” said LaPenta. “Then they started to disappear, and by the mid- to lates there were hardly any left.

Quarters were the lowest denomination When the penny machines started to come out, they re-energized the popularity of smaller denominations.”

“Because of the trend in popularity of penny slot machines,” he said, “that product has been increased in operators’ inventories. They’re reacting to demand.”

“I think the migration to lower denomination machines started before the recession,” said LaPenta.

“Whether it’s accelerated by the recession is hard to say, but it’s possible, and it certainly hasn’t pushed it in the opposite direction.”

At the Gaming Control Board, Cruz says people need to remember that the payout rate has no impact on any one person’s chances of winning.

“One of the classic myths,” said Cruz, “is if I put in $, how come I don’t win at least $85?”

Each machine is programmed to generate results on a random basis for every play, and the payout ratio is based on the life of the machine.

Actual payouts are unpredictable in the short term, but over time they will average out to Slot machine payout ratio proper ratio.

That’s what Cruz and his crew constantly test for.

“We give (casinos) the pool to play in, and at the end of the day, our job is to make sure they are swimming in the right pool,” he said.

But the house always wins.

“The advantage of casinos,” said Cruz, “is they have a larger bank roll and time, so the return will always be in their favor.”

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