Win And More

Win and more
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You can make a difference. This is all the more reason to understand the house advantage and how it works against a player who has lost a significant sum and is spending lots of time in the casino trying to win it back. This means that, the more you play, the more the math works against you, and the better the chances are of you walking out of the casino with less money in your wallet than when you came in.

The Bottom Line

Almost every time, it’s in your best financial interest not to walk into that casino and place the bet—the math simply isn’t your friend.

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Casino Stats: Why Gamblers Rarely Win

In a down economy, it’s normal to start thinking of alternative ways to generate some extra money, but if you’re tempted into thinking that gambling is one of those good alternatives, then you need to keep reading.

Once you step foot into a casino and exchange Win and more money for chips, you’ve sold away your only advantage: staying out of the casino to begin with. These casinos generated $ billion in gaming taxes for state and local governments in

Inthe U.S. Supreme Court gave U.S. states permission to legalize sports betting if they wish to do so. Todays best music mix.

The Oscars of wine awards Penguin slot machine products of 18 Israeli wineries, bestowing six gold medals, 31 silvers and 28 bronzes.

Easy Bets To Win

The 5 Easiest Football Bets to WinFootball betting is challenging though fun. The bettors winning a bet does not happen quite often. Inexperience, favoritism, poor knowledge of sport and weak strategy are some of the reasons of losses in football betting. But, there must be some opportunities that bettors may convert into profits, right. Good News is there are not one or two but about five football bets that are easy to crack and require minimal research. Let's explore these easy bets. How do we define an easy bet?Before you traverse through the list of easy bets, first understand what puts any bet under ‘easy bet' tag. Well, this bet does have little risk, but its chances of winning are higher. The bettors are not doing some cheat things to beat the bookmaker, but simply working out the possibilities to keep the money safe. Further, the chance of losing money is reduced to bare minimum in these bets. Hence, these bets differ from arbitrage bets, as you are not laying a bet completely when playing an easy bet. What are the easiest bets to win?Explained here are some of the bets that are the easiest to win and offer good opportunity to earn some money to bettors. These bets work as financial cushion and may help keep the bettor's account in action. BTTS: BTTS bet demands the punters to predict if both teams will score a goal or not. Most of the matches, where both teams are likely to score, see the meeting of teams which are arch rivals. They don't allow the opponent to take over so easily. Also, when two teams with similar capacity or strength lock horns, the match ends with goals marked on each team's side. OverUnder: This bet can work in your favor when you have chosen a smaller figure as reference. In some matches where both teams are strong at hitting goals, you can peg the overunder figure at a low point of In this case, you will lose the bet only if the match ends in clean sheet, which seems fairly impossible. Secondly, since you are not speculating exact figure but the range, the bet proves to be a bit easier. Double chance bet: In this bet, you win money when any two from the three outcomes are obtained. It means, even draw match wins you money when you have placed money on the possibility of draw or lose. 1x2 betting with double chance proves easy when the strong team is meeting a weak team at home ground. Probability wise, too, the chances become each instead of 50. Is overunder first half goals bet easier to win?Overunder first half goals bet is easy, undoubtedly. You need to do a little homework on the opening strategy of contending teams. If both teams show strong start in their matches, or have strong forward players who show aggressive attach at the beginning, the first half will see the fastest goals. Hence, you can go for overunder 25. Under 5 is more strong a possibility because teams don't usually pick that kind of momentum to hit five goals in the first half. Also, if you are looking for an easy value bet, you can go for over first half goal bet. It is better to keep the guess at over or 1 mostly when choosing over goal bet for the first half. What is draw no bet and how does it reduce risk?In draw no bet, the bet is cancelled and the money is returned to punter if the match ends in a draw. Thus, it is between match result market and double chance market in terms of odds value. While the match result has odd of 12, the double chance stands at 18. Thus, the chance of 16 for draw no bet on a match between teams like Chelsea and Leeds gives better opportunity to earn, and still, you can secure the investment. The bettor does not lose all the money as the bet is cancelled in case of draw result. The bet works well when the favorite is not clear. In this match, draw is a strong possibility. Hence, to reduce the chance of loss and benefit from better odds, punters can chose this bet. Draw no bet appears as an option in the following sports:FootballCricketHorse racingBoxingIce HockeyChessVarious racing sportsDouble chance bet is a similar kind of betting market.

Russell Wilson Wants to Stay in Seattle and Win ‘Three More Super Bowls’

Seahawks quarterback Russell Wilson said he wants to remain in Seattle, adding Best slot machines to win on his main goal this year is to get another chance to win the Super Bowl with the team that drafted him.

"I&#x;ve been fortunate to be able to play 10 amazing years in Seattle, Wilson told Chris Russo on SiriusXM.

Photo: courtesy

The silver awardees – four whites and 27 reds &#; were from Adir, Carmel, Dalton, Ella Valley, Gat Shomron, Golan Heights, Gva’ot, Har Bracha, Karmei Yosef, Maia, Psagot, Recanati, Shiloh, Teperberg and Tura Estate wineries.

The bronze awardees were from Adir, Bravdo, Carmel, Dalton, Ella Valley, Gat Shomron, Golan Heights, Gva’ot, Har Bracha, Karmei Yosef, Recanati, Shiloh and Teperberg wineries.

Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE).

Key Takeaways

  • Gambling is not a good alternative for earning extra cash.
  • Each game you play at a casino has a statistical probability against you winning.
  • Slot machine odds are some of the worst, ranging from a one-in-5, to one-in-aboutmillion chance of winning the top prize when using the maximum coin play.
  • Incommercial casino gaming revenue amounted to about $ billion; one way to think about all those profits is that they are the result of the accrual of all of the losses from casino patrons each year.

Big Business and Big Profits

To say casino gambling is a lucrative business would be an understatement.

If you had a slew of bad hands, the likelihood of that turning into a winning streak simply doesn’t exist. The slot machine odds are often some of the worst, ranging from a one-in-5, to one-in-aboutmillion chance of winning the top prize when using the maximum coin play.

The house advantage obviously isn’t insurmountable—people do win (sometimes substantially).

The more a player struggles to get ahead, the more they get pulled into additional losses. Of course, some of the money may come from other venues within the casino, but the breadwinner for this industry is the games. However, it does mean that the more you play, the more the math works against you, and the better the chances are of you walking out of the casino with Win and more money in your wallet than when you came in. While the house advantage varies for each game, it ultimately helps ensure that the casino won’t lose money over time.

For people who are really good Machine slot free blackjack, the advantage for the casino might be only %, but certain types of slot machines might have a 35% edge over a player—and other games fall somewhere in between. Learn how to: Identify customer pain points. That&#x;s always been it, never been anything different.

Wilson added he wants to work with the team to get over the hump and win more championships.

I want to win three more Super Bowls, Wilson said.

Each game you play at a casino has a statistical probability against you winning—every single time. You can’t even bet on winning or losing streaks, either. For those who want to press their luck anyway, make sure to quit while you’re ahead. Casinos can bring great shows, food, Win and more entertainment, but statistically, they won’t bring you much more than that.

They included 18 reds, nine whites and one rosé (Adir’s Kerem Ben Zimra Barbera Rosé).

The Israeli winery that garnered the most Decanter awards this year was Shiloh, with two golds, seven silvers and four bronzes.

The highest-scoring Israeli wine, with 96 points, was Psagot’s Peak. Win · FAQS. Enjoy the best wine has to offer in moderation, avoid excess. A significant portion of casino profits are the result of the accrual of all of the losses from casino patrons each year.

Does playing more increase the odds of winning?

The odds for each game are stacked in favor of the casino.

she could just do.Over wines, spirits & beers with the best prices, Jackpot slots in mail and service at Total Wine & More. Joe Biden has decided to water down his Indo-Pacific Economic Framework in an eleventh-hour move to attract more countries to join the deal. While gambling can be entertaining, it's in your best financial interest not to place bets.

How do casinos make their money?

Although casinos may earn some money from food, entertainment, and other venues, the breadwinner for the industry is the games.

Is gambling a viable alternative for earning extra cash?

Each game you play at a casino has a statistical probability against you winning, which makes gambling an inadequate option for those looking to boost their income. "I&#x;ve got great confidence in what he can do and how he calls the game. Donate today to support journalism that brings Israel’s story alive.

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Win and more

I love Shane, he&#x;s a mastermind, he loves putting the extra work in.

Waldron spent four years with the Rams, including three as the pass game coordinator, before joining Seattle as their offensive coordinator last offseason.

Watch NFL gamesonline all season long with fuboTV: Start with a 7-day free trial!

Inthe Seahawks offense ranked 16th in points scored and 20th in total yards.

Incommercial casino gaming revenue amounted to about $30 billion, a nearly 30% decline from due to the COVID pandemic after a seven-year period of steady year-over-year growth.

Still, gambling is big business. It is still fully illegal in nine states, including Texas. Photo: courtesy

In addition, 31 Israeli wines got silver awards and 28 received bronze awards.

Shiloh Winery got the most medals of any Israeli winery in the Decanter World Wine Awards.

Here are five ways to win more in League, curated by former Origen, Fnatic, and Win and more in Pyjamas head coach NicoThePico. Catch this train. Diseño de California Sta. Rita Hills Rosé of Pinot Noir. While this house advantage varies for each game, it ultimately helps to ensure that over time, the casino won’t lose money to gamblers. That&#x;s the vision, that&#x;s the goal. Save summoner spells. Best Sellers(View More) click to collapse contents.

Download this free B2B sales guide to better position your sales team for more wins & sales. There&#x;s nothing more fun than that.

Additionally, despite the inconsistent year on offense, Wilson spoke highly of current Seahawks offensive coordinator Shane Waldron as the two head into their second year together.

I think Shane Waldron is great, I think he&#x;s a really good play-caller, I think he understands the game," Wilson said.

That winning streak you’re on is definitely all in your head. Shop online for delivery, curbside or in-store. We are the trusted source for original content you won't find anywhere else. The other gold medalists each scored 95 points.

Bring Israel's story to life.

Millions of people around the world rely on us to gain a deeper understanding of Israel.

· More about Israeli. Reference article for the more command, which displays one screen of output at a time.

Now, think of yourself walking into a casino with the feeling that you’re going to beat those odds (or profits) because luck (whatever that is) is on your side. There are more than commercial casinos in the United States, according to Free x rated slots American Gaming Association’s State of the States report.

That&#x;s my focus, is to get back and win it again and for us to overcome all the obstacles.

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The table below compiles some of the house edges for several popular casino games.

Casino Game Odds
GAMEBET/RULESHOUSE EDGE
BaccaratBanker%
Player%
Tie%
Big Six$1%
$2%
$5%
$10%
$20%
Joker/Logo%
Bonus SixNo insurance%
With insurance%
BlackjackLiberal Vegas rules%
Caribbean Stud Poker%
Casino WarGo to war on ties%
Surrender of ties%
Bet on ties%
Catcha Wave%
CrapsPass/Come%
Don’t pass/don’t come%
Odds — 4 or 10%
Odds — 5 or 9%
Odds — 6 or 8%
Field ( on 12)%
Field ( on 12)%
Any craps%
Big 6,8%
Hard 4,10%
Hard 6,8%
Place 6,8%
Place 5,9%
Place 4,10%
Place (to lose) 4,10%
2, 12, and all hard ways%
3, 11, and all easy ways%
Any 7%
Crazy 4 PokerAnte%
Double Down Stud%
Heads Up Hold ’emBlind pay table #1 ()%
Keno25%–29%
Let It Ride%
Pai Gow%
Pai Gow Poker%
Pick ’em Poker0%–10%
Red DogSix decks%
RouletteSingle Zero%
Double Zero%
Sic-Bo%–%
Slot Machines2%–50%
Spanish 21Dealer hits soft 17%
Dealer stands on soft 17%
Super Fun 21%
Three Card PokerPair plus%
Ante and play%
Ultimate Texas Hold ’emAnte%
Video PokerJacks or Better (Full Pay)%
Wild Hold ’em Fold ’em%

Everyone’s (Not) a Winner

All those profits are the result of the accrual of all of the losses from casino patrons each year.

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Read more. i bet you have some good pussy That was so damn hot, especially the way you roll your hips. In seven other states, there is some form of pending legislation.

Games of No Chance

Math is the universal language, and it rarely ever lies.

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If you or someone you know has a gambling problem, call the National Problem Gambling Helpline ator visit ncpgambling.org/chat to chat with a helpline specialist.

The Betting Rip Current

Aside from the entertainment of casinos, some people do get swept into an addiction that far surpasses the entertainment value of the games.

Only a small percentage of gamblers reach this point, but unfortunately, it’s estimated that their losses make up a quarter of the profits for the casinos. Joe Biden has decided to water down his Indo-Pacific Economic Framework in an eleventh-hour move to attract more countries to join the deal. My hope and goal is to be back there and keep winning there.

Not likely.

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It’s just not in the cards—or math, for that matter. Copyright © MediaWorks Radio – All Rights Reserved. Contact Us · Standard Slots lv login / Promotion Terms and. Wilson missed three games with an injury but totaled 25 passing touchdowns and two rushing touchdowns in 14 games.

More NFL Coverage:

Sports Illustrated may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website.

65 Israeli wines win medals in Decanter World Wine Awards

Six Israeli wineries won gold medals in the Decanter World Wine Awards.

Considered the “Oscars” of wine awards, Decanter’s competition has become the world’s largest wine contest over the past 17 years.

“Over 28 consecutive days in August, of the world’s top wine experts, including 37 Masters of Wine and nine Master Sommeliers, blind tasted 16, wines under strict Covid safety guidelines, resulting in 50 Best in Show, Platinum, Gold, 5, Silver and 7, Bronze medals,” Decanter reports.

The six Israeli gold medalists are all reds: Gofna Reserve Cabernet Frank from Gva’ot Winery (vintage ), Peak from Psagot Winery (), Secret Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon and Mosaic Exclusive Edition from Shiloh Winery (), Black Tulip from Tulip Winery (), and Cabernet Sauvignon from Yarden Winery ().

Psagot Winery’s Peak scored highest among Israeli medalists in the Decanter World Wine Awards.

and it’s no surprise where those profits are coming from: Tens of millions of people visit Las Vegas in a typical Win and more, with some hoping to win more money than they came in with. Those are two amazing views ) Thanks!.

How to Win at Valorant More Often

Valorant, RIOT Games’ FPS, has a very interactive and no-nonsense gameplay similar to CS:GO.

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The team-based shooter requires a combination of strategy and skill, and often creates adrenaline fuelled gun battles that can be daunting for a beginner. 

The game has an advanced in-game economy and tactile weapon responses. Inexperienced players will have to go through a period of exploration and acquisition to get better. But armed with our curated list of tips, you can rake in kills in no time and secure those elusive wins. 

1) Learn the Shooting Ranges of Different Weapons

Like CS GO, the game has a multitude of sidearms, shotguns, rifles, AWP’s, SMG’s and Machine Guns to choose from.

Your skills with a weapon in a different FPS will not translate completely into Valorant. 

This is why there is an intuitive shooting range where you can test out various weapons while shooting at targets. There are different difficulty levels (bots appear faster in the hard mode) and you can choose stationary or moving bots depending on your skill level.

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Choose the armored bots + spawn mode and start shooting! Try to land the most headshots. 

Each weapon has different but repeating recoil patterns.

Win and more

You can get a feel for them and understand their effectiveness while burst firing or mag dumping. 

If you are a rifler, you might struggle between choosing the phantom or the vandal. Each rifle has a different fire rate and damage.

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So test them out and see which suits your gameplay best. By using the shooting range, you can figure out which one you play with the best. 

2) Learn the Abilities of Different Agents

Valorant has a tier-based agent system. There are 11 agents in the game and each character has different skills.

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Their abilities are crucial to getting a high K/D ratio. They come with 2 optional skills that can be purchased, one ultimate ability that you earn with XP, and one Signature ability that takes multiple rounds to refresh. 

The characters are divided into four classes called controller, sentinel, initiator and duelist. 

Controllers have a host of abilities that help you modify the map with abilities like walls, smoke and slowing down enemies.

Sentinels are for the more defensive minded and players who love to support initiators and duelists with traps. 

Initiators are for those who love to be the centre of action. These characters have stuns and ability to read enemy positions giving them an advantage while rushing bomb sites. Duelists characters are the most attack-oriented in the game with frags and bombs, designed for those who dive head-first into battle. 

Learning these abilities will prove crucial in team gameplay as a wider range of well-chosen characters who compliment each other will give you an edge over your opponents.

3) Hold Onto Your Character Abilities, Especially While Attacking

In a round, one team attacks and the other defends.

Attackers plant the spike (bomb) and defenders try and defuse it. Win and more your team is in possession of the spike, try to hold onto your character abilities. After planting the spike, these abilities become much more valuable. 

Depending on which character you choose, you Online slots jackpot block off enemies coming in from certain angles, find out where they are pushing from or or slow them down as they pass through. 

For example, while using Sage, use your slow-down orb around the spike so that an opponent has to pass through it to reach the spike.

Viper has Snake Bite, which also slows down opponents when placed around the spike. Jett has CloudBurst which blocks enemy vision making them blind on entry into the spike site. These give you crucial seconds to aim and kill from a chosen vantage point.

4) Try Hard to Secure the Pistol Round 

Because Valorant has in-game credits, it is important to secure the first few rounds. This sets you up for success throughout the game. For this, winning the pistol round is crucial. 

First, choose your favorite pistols.

The Ghost is a good and Win and more starting pistol that has a fire rate and recoil pattern similar to CS:GO’s USP. If you are a CS:GO player, we suggest you go for it. Also, if you choose to keep the spawn pistol, invest in shields and abilities in the pistol round, which are cheaper than weapons.

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The credits you earn from the win will set you up well for future rounds. 

5) Don’t Rush While Defending

While your team is defending, do not rush the site as the opponents will definitely have set up traps for you and hold on to higher ground. Instead try and hold angles for a while and move slowly through, doubling up with team mates. Do not solo rush, this will end in disaster and affect your KD ratio.

Try to figure out the opponent’s pattern during attack and try to flank them or surprise them with a planned team sweep of the map.

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This gives you a better chance to trade. Every time a teammate dies, you are right in place to take out an injured opponent who is most often reloading.

6) Don’t Jump Straight Into Ranked Gameplay

Starting off with the ranked game-mode is a bad idea as it adds a lot of pressure in terms of securing wins to improve your online position.

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It is very easy for newbies to get carried away. Especially in a game with an unique in-game economy and game engine. 

The game has a learning curve which is not very steep but takes some time Black knight slot machine get used to.

It can be challenging enough to secure wins while starting out in unranked gameplay. Even if you are a seasoned veteran in FPS gameplay, a new game poses new challenges. So it is crucial that you warm up before ranked-play.

7) Optimize FPS Performance

This modern FPS is highly intuitive. Valorant has recorded very high frame rates, even with lower spec PC’s and laptops. This makes movements and aiming highly tactile functions and the whole game extremely immersive. However, there are ways to further improve your FPS on Valorant.

Your in-game settings like sensitivity and crosshair opacity and color should be customized before you get into ranked play. Try to tweak it early on and make it suit your gameplay style to get optimal gameplay. Remember, no one likes excuses when you lose. 

8) Find Good Players to Play With – And Against

The final and probably the most important tip.

Each game has a massive 25 rounds, the first team to secure 13 rounds wins the game. This makes each game an arduous combination of skill and planning. 

The game has credits that you earn and use to buy weapons, you earn these credits as you make kills and complete rounds.

Win and more

But, what is unique is that you can share these credits with your teammates to help them out. If a teammate is running low and cannot afford weapons or armour, you could buy it for them. 

Since the game is not a battle royale, your play in each round as a team has to be strategized.

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Rushing the same location every time will not end well for your team. If you like the gameplay of Valorant, get your trusted gamer squad in on it!

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  2. First-move advantage in chess

    Advantage of White over Black in chess

    In chess, there is a general consensus among players and theorists that the player who makes the first move (White) has an inherent advantage. Since , compiled statistics support this view; White consistently slightly more often than Black, usually scoring between 52 and 56&#;percent. White's is about the same for tournament games between humans and games between computers;[nb 1] however, White's advantage is less significant in blitz games and games between novices.

    Chess players and theoreticians have long debated whether, given perfect play by both sides, the game should end in a win for White or a draw. Since approximately , when World ChampionWilhelm Steinitz addressed this issue, the consensus has been that a perfectly played game would end in a draw (futile game). A few notable players have argued, however, that White's advantage may be sufficient to force a win: Weaver Adams and Vsevolod Rauzer claimed that White is winning after the first move 1.e4, while Hans Berliner argued that 1.d4 may win for White. Chess is not a solved game, however, and it is considered unlikely that the game will be solved in the foreseeable future.

    Some players, including world champions such as José Raúl Capablanca, Emanuel Lasker, and Bobby Fischer, have expressed fears of a "draw death" as chess becomes more deeply analyzed. To alleviate this danger, Capablanca and Fischer both proposed chess variants to revitalize the game, while Lasker suggested changing how draws and stalemates are scored.

    Some writers have challenged the view that White has an inherent advantage. Grandmaster (GM) András Adorján wrote a series of books on the theme that "Black is OK!", arguing that the general perception that White has an advantage is founded more in psychology than reality. GM Mihai Suba and others contend that sometimes White's disappears for no apparent reason as a game progresses. The prevalent style of play for Black today is to seek unbalanced, positions with active , rather than merely trying to . Modern writers also argue that Black has certain countervailing advantages. The consensus that White should try to win can be a psychological burden for the white player, who sometimes loses by trying too hard to win. Some symmetrical openings (i.e. those where Black's moves mirror White's) can lead to situations where moving first is a detriment, for either psychological or objective reasons.

    Winning percentages[edit]

    White
    wins
    DrawnBlack
    wins
    Total score
    for White
    Tournaments
    % % % %
    Tournaments
    % % % %
    Tournaments
    % % % %
    Tournaments
    overall –
    % % % %
    New in Chess
    database
    N/A N/A N/A %
    World Blitz Chess
    Championship
    % % % %
    CEGT chess
    engines results
    (40/)
    % % % %
    Chessgames.com
    database
    % % % %

    In , W.F. Streeter examined the results of 5,&#;games played in 45 international chess tournaments between and [1] Streeter found that overall White scored % (W: ; D: ; L: ).[nb 2] White scored % in – (W; D: ; L: ), % in – (W: ; D: ; L: ), and % in – (W: ; D: ; L: ).[1] Streeter concluded, "It thus appears that it is becoming increasingly difficult to win with Black, but somewhat easier to draw."[1][2]

    Two decades later, statistician Arthur M. Stevens concluded in The Blue Book of Charts to Winning Chess, based on a survey of 56, master games that he completed in , that White scores %.[3] However, Stevens assembled his games from those that had been published in chess magazines, rather than complete collections of all the games played in particular events.[4]

    More recent sources indicate that White scores approximately 54 to 56 percent. In , GM Jonathan Rowson wrote that "the conventional wisdom is that White begins the game with a small advantage and, holding all other factors constant, scores approximately 56% to Black's 44%".[5]International Master (IM) John Watson wrote in that White had scored 56% for most of the 20th century, but that this figure had recently slipped to 55%.[6] The website Chessgames.com holds regularly updated statistics on its games database. As of January 12, , White had won %, % were drawn, and Black had won % out of , games, resulting in a total White winning percentage of %.[7]

    New In Chess observed in its Yearbook that of the ,&#;games in its database, White scored % overall; with the two most popular opening moves, White scored % in ,&#;games beginning 1.e4 (moving the king's pawn 2 spaces forwards), and % in ,&#;games beginning 1.d4 (moving the queen's pawn 2 spaces forwards). The main reason that 1.e4 was less effective than 1.d4 was the Sicilian Defence (1.e4 c5), which gave White only a % score in ,&#;games.[8]

    StatisticianJeff Sonas, in examining data from ,&#;games played between and , concluded that White scored % plus times White's Elo rating advantage, treating White's rating advantage as + if it is better than +, or − if it is worse than − He found that White's advantage is equivalent to 35 rating points, i.e. if White has a rating 35&#;points below Black's, each player will have an expected score of 50%. Sonas also found that White's advantage is smaller (53%) in rapid games than in games at a slower ("classical") time control.[9] In the games played at the World Blitz Chess Championship, White scored only % (W D L).[10][11]

    Other writers conclude that there is a positive correlation between the players' ratings and White's score. According to GM Evgeny Sveshnikov, statistics show that White has no advantage over Black in games between beginners, but "if the players are stronger, White has the lead".[12] An analysis of the results of games in ChessBase's Mega database between players with similar Elo ratings, commissioned by GM András Adorján, showed that as the players' ratings went up, the percentage of draws increased, the proportion of decisive games that White won increased, and White's overall winning percentage increased.[13] For example, taking the highest and lowest of Adorján's rating categories of &#;games played by the highest-rated players (Elo ratings and above), White scored % overall (W D L), whereas of 34,&#;games played by the lowest-rated players (Elo ratings below ), White scored % overall (W D L).[14] Adorján also analyzed the results of games played at the very highest level: World Championship matches. Of &#;games played in 34 matches between and , White won (%), drew (%), and lost (%), for a total white winning percentage of %.[15] In the last five matches in Adorjan's survey, all between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov, White won 31 (%), drew 80 (%), and lost 9 (%), for a total white winning percentage of %.[16]

    Chess Engines Grand Tournament (CEGT) tests computer chess engines by playing them against each other, with time controls of 40 moves in minutes per player (40/), and also 40/20 and 40/4, and uses the results of those games to compile a rating list for each time control. At the slowest time control (40/), White has scored % (W D L) in games played among 38 of the strongest chess engines (as of May 27, ).[17] At 40/20, White has scored % (W D L) in games played among engines (as of April 22, ).[18] At the fastest time control (40/4), White has scored % (W D L), in games played among programs (as of May 28, ).[19]

    In AlphaZero, playing games against Stockfish, won 25 and drew 25 as White, but won 3 and drew 47 as Black.[20][21]

    Drawn with best play[edit]

    Evgeny Sveshnikov, who in claimed that White must play to win, while Black must play to draw

    Joseph Bertin wrote in his textbook The Noble Game of Chess, "He that plays first, is understood to have the attack."[22] This is consistent with the traditional view that White, by virtue of the first move, begins with the and should try to extend it into the middlegame, while Black should strive to neutralize White's initiative and attain .[23][24][25] Because White begins with the initiative, a minor mistake by White generally leads only to loss of the initiative, while a similar mistake by Black may have more serious consequences.[26][27] Thus, Sveshnikov wrote in , "Black players cannot afford to make even the slightest mistake from a theoretical point of view, the tasks of White and Black in chess are different: White has to strive for a win, Black—for a draw!"[28]

    Chess theorists have long debated how enduring White's initiative is and whether, if both sides play perfectly, the game should end in a win for White or a draw. George Walker wrote in that, "The first move is an advantage, but if properly answered, the first move is of little worth".[29] Steinitz, the first World Champion, who is widely considered the father of modern chess,[30][31][32] wrote in , "It is now conceded by all experts that by proper play on both sides the legitimate issue of a game ought to be a draw."[33] Lasker and Capablanca, the second and third World Champions, agreed.[34][35][36]Reuben Fine, one of the world's leading players from to ,[37] wrote that White's opening advantage is too intangible to be sufficient for a win without an error by Black.[38]

    The view that a game of chess should end in a draw given best play prevails. Even if it cannot be proved, this assumption is considered "safe" by Rowson and "logical" by Adorján.[39][40] Watson agrees that "the proper result of a perfectly played chess game is a draw. Of course, I can't prove this, but I doubt that you can find a single strong player who would disagree. I remember Kasparov, after a last-round draw, explaining to the waiting reporters: 'Well, chess is a draw.'"[41] World Champion Bobby Fischer thought that "it's almost definite that the game is a draw theoretically".[42][43][44] Similarly, British grandmaster Nigel Short wrote that " with perfect play, God versus God chess is a draw".[45]

    Lasker and Capablanca both worried that chess would suffer a "draw death" as top-level players drew more and more of their games.[46][47] More recently, Fischer agreed, saying that the game has become played out.[48] All three advocated changing the rules of chess to minimize the number of drawn games. Lasker suggested scoring less than half a point for a draw, and more than half a point for stalemating the opponent's king.[46] Capablanca in the s proposed Capablanca Chess, a chess variant played on a larger 8×10 board and with additional pieces (the chancellor and archbishop, moving as rook—knight and bishop—knight combinations respectively in the same way the queen could be said to be a rook—bishop combination).[49] Fischer advocated Fischerandom Chess, another chess variant, in which the initial position of the pieces is determined at random and identical for both players, subject to the constraints that the bishops be on opposite colours and that the king stand between the rooks.[50][51]

    Today some of the opening variations have been analyzed so deeply that they are often used as . For example, at the highest levels, Black often uses the Marshall Attack in the Ruy Lopez. In this line Black sacrifices a pawn for strong attacking chances, to obtain an endgame where Black is still a pawn down but is able to draw with correct play.[52][53][54][55]

    In , GMs Kiril Georgiev and Atanas Kolev asserted that much the same was true of the so-called Poisoned Pawn Variation of the Najdorf Sicilian, which arises after 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4 Qb6!? This has long been considered one of the sharpest and most problematic,[56][57] or even foolhardy, opening lines.[58][59][60] The game usually continues 8.Qd2 Qxb2 9.Rb1 Qa3.[61] Georgiev and Kolev stated that 6.Bg5 is seldom seen at the highest level because the of this variation leads, with best play, to a draw by perpetual check.[62] They wrote that the following game "will probably remain the last word of theory":[63]

    Francisco Vallejo Pons–Garry Kasparov, Moscow [64]1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 6. Bg5 e6 7. f4 Qb6 8. Qd2 Qxb2 9. Rb1 Qa3 f5 Nc6 fxe6 fxe6 Nxc6 bxc6 e5 dxe5 Bxf6 gxf6 Ne4 Qxa2 Rd1 Be7 Be2 Ra7 Rf3 Kh8 Rg3 Rd7 Qh6 Rf7 Qh5 Rxd1+ Bxd1 Qa5 Kf1 Qd8 Qxf7 Qxd1+ Kf2 Qxc2+ Kf3 Qd1+ Kf2 Qc2+ Ke3 Bc5+ Nxc5 Qxc5+ Kd2 Qf2+ Kc3 Qd4+ Kc2 Qf2+ Kc3½–½[65] (After Qd4+, White cannot escape the checks.)

    However, Georgiev and Kolev's pessimistic assessment of 6.Bg5 has since been called into question, as White succeeded with e5 (another critical line) in several later high-level games.[66][67] GM Zaven Andriasyan wrote in that after f5, "a forced draw results", but that after e5, "we reach a very sharp position, with mutual chances."[68]

    White wins[edit]

    Although it is very much a minority view, three prominent twentieth-century masters claimed that White's advantage should or may be decisive with best play.

    White wins with 1.e4[edit]

    After 1.e4, "White ought to win", according to Adams.

    Weaver Adams, then one of the leading American masters,[69] was the best-known proponent of this view, which he introduced in his book White to Play and Win,[70] and continued to expound in later books and articles until shortly before his death in [71] Adams opined that 1.e4 was White's strongest move,[72] and that if both sides played the best moves thereafter, "White ought to win."[73] Adams' claim was widely ridiculed,[74][75][76] and he did not succeed in demonstrating the validity of his theory in tournament and match practice. The year after his book was published, at the finals of the U.S. Open tournament, he scored only one draw in his four games as White, but won all four of his games as Black.[77] Adams also lost a match to IM I.A. Horowitz, who took the black pieces in every game.[78]

    According to Sveshnikov, Vsevolod Rauzer, a leading Soviet player and theoretician during the s,[79] likewise "claimed in the [s]: '1.e4—and White wins!' and he managed to prove it quite often".[12]

    White wins with 1.d4[edit]

    After 1.d4, Berliner claimed that White may have a winning advantage.

    More recently, IM Hans Berliner, a former World Champion of Correspondence Chess, claimed in his book The System that 1.d4 gives White a large, and possibly decisive, advantage. Berliner asserted that with best play White wins against the Grünfeld Defense, the Modern Benoni, the Benko Gambit and other (unnamed) "major defences", and achieves at least a large advantage in many lines of the Queen's Gambit Declined.[80] He allowed, however, that "It is possible that the rules of chess are such that only some number of plausible-appearing defences to 1.d4 can be refuted."[81] Berliner wrote that Adams' "theories, though looked upon with scorn by most top chess players, made an immediate and lasting impression on me. Weaver W. Adams was the first person I met who actually had theories about how chess should be played."[74]

    Berliner's thesis, like Adams', has been sharply criticized.[82][83][84]

    Modern perspectives[edit]

    As explained below, chess theorists in recent decades have continued to debate the size and nature of White's advantage, if any. Apart from Berliner, they have rejected the idea that White has a forced win from the opening position. Many also reject the traditional paradigm that Black's objective should be to neutralize White's initiative and obtain equality.

    White has an enduring advantage[edit]

    Starting from , GM Larry Kaufman has expressed a more nuanced view than Adams and Berliner, arguing that the initiative stemming from the first move can always be transformed into some sort of enduring advantage, albeit not necessarily a decisive one. He wrote in , "I don't believe that White has a forced win in chess, but I do believe that if he starts with 1.e4 and makes no mistakes, he can retain at least the preferable position without allowing an obvious draw for 30 to 40 moves or so, beyond the point to which openings can generally be analyzed. He should normally get positions where it is fairly easy to explain why White is better, even if in many cases a grandmaster can expect to hold the draw against a similar opponent. Black should at least be the one who has to be careful to get the draw."[85] Nonetheless, Kaufman considers it necessary for White to make no mistakes to achieve this evaluation. Kaufman writes that "once White makes one or two second-rate moves I start to look for a black advantage."[86]

    Black is OK![edit]

    Starting in , Adorján has argued in a series of books and magazine articles that "Black is OK!"[87][88] Alone amongst modern writers, Adorján claims that White starts the game with essentially no advantage. He writes, "In my opinion, the only obvious advantage for White is that if he or she plays for a draw, and does so well, then Black can hardly avoid this without taking obvious risks."[89] Adorján goes so far as to claim that, "The tale of White's advantage is a delusion; belief in it is based on mass psychosis."[90] Rowson writes that Adorján's "contention is one of the most important chess ideas of the last two decades because it has shaken our assumption that White begins the game with some advantage, and revealed its ideological nature".[91] However, Rowson rejects Adorján's claim that White has essentially no advantage, reasoning that "'White is better' and 'Black is OK' need not be mutually exclusive claims".[92]

    In one of Adorján's books, GM Lajos Portisch opined that "at least two-thirds of all 'tested' openings give White an apparent advantage." According to Portisch, for Black, "The root of the problem is that very few people know which are the openings where Black is really OK. Those who find these lines have nothing to fear, as Black is indeed OK, but only in those variations!"[93] Rowson considers this an important point,[92] noting that "1.d4&#;players struggle to get anywhere against main-line Slavs and 1.e4&#;players find the Najdorf and Sveshnikov Sicilians particularly tough."[94]

    Dynamism[edit]

    Modern writers often think of Black's role in more terms than merely trying to equalize. Rowson writes that "the idea of Black trying to 'equalize' is questionable. I think it has limited application to a few openings, rather than being an opening prescription for Black in general."[92] Evans wrote that after one of his games against Fischer, "Fischer confided his 'secret' to me: unlike other masters, he sought to win with the Black pieces from the start. The revelation that Black has dynamic chances and need not be satisfied with mere equality was the turning point in his career, he said."[95] Likewise, Watson surmised that Kasparov, when playing Black, bypasses the question of whether White has an opening advantage "by thinking in terms of the concrete nature of the dynamic imbalance on the board, and seeking to seize the initiative whenever possible".[6] Watson observes that "energetic opening play by Black may lead to a position so complex and unclear that to speak of equality is meaningless. Sometimes we say 'dynamically balanced' instead of 'equal' to express the view that either player is as likely as the other to emerge from complications with an advantage. This style of opening play has become prevalent in modern chess, with World Champions Fischer and Kasparov as its most visible practitioners."[96]

    Modern writers also question the idea that White has an enduring advantage. Suba, in his influential book Dynamic Chess Strategy,[97] rejects the notion that the initiative can always be transformed into an enduring advantage. He contends that sometimes the player with the initiative loses it with no logical explanation, and that, "Sometimes you must lose it, just like that. If you try to cling to it, by forcing the issue, your dynamic potential will become exhausted and you won't be able to face a vigorous counter-attack."[98] Rowson and Watson concur.[99][] Watson also observes, "Because of the presumption of White being better, the juncture of the game at which Black frees his game or neutralizes White's plans has often been automatically assumed to give him equality, even though in dynamic openings, the exhaustion of White's initiative very often means that Black has seized it with advantage."[]

    Countervailing advantages[edit]

    Rowson argues that both White and Black have certain advantages:[]

    White's advantages[edit]

    Position after Nf3: Black must either continue with the Zaitsev Variation (Re8), allowing White an immediate draw, or choose a different variation.

    According to Rowson, White's first advantage is that, "The advantage of the first move has some similarities with the serve in tennis in that White can score an 'ace' (for instance with a powerful ), he has more control over the pace and direction of the game, and he has a 'second serve' in that when things go wrong his position is not usually losing." Second, White begins the game with some initiative, although Rowson regards this as a psychological rather than a positional advantage, "and whether it leads to a positional advantage depends on the relative skill of the players."[] Third, some players are able to use the initiative to "play a kind of powerful 'serve and volley' chess in which Black is flattened with a mixture of deep and prowess." Fourth, "If White wants to draw, it is often not so easy for Black to prevent this. This advantage is particularly acute in cases where there is a possible threefold repetition, because White can begin the repetition without committing to a draw and Black has to decide whether to deviate before he knows whether White is bluffing."[]

    Rowson cites as an example of the last phenomenon the well-regarded Zaitsev Variation of the Ruy Lopez. After 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 Be7 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 8.c3 d6 9.h3 Bb7 d4 Re8 (initiating the Zaitsev Variation), White can repeat moves once with Ng5 Rf8 Nf3. This puts Black in an awkward situation, since he must either (a) insist on the Zaitsev with Re8, which allows White to choose whether to draw by threefold repetition with Ng5 Rf8 Nf3, or play on with a different move, or (b) play a different (and possibly inferior) variation by playing something other than Re8.[][]

    Black's advantages[edit]

    Rowson argues that Black also has several advantages. First, "White's alleged advantage is also a kind of obligation to play for a win, and Black can often use this to his advantage." Second, "White's 'extra move' can be a burden, and sometimes White finds himself in a mild form of zugzwang ('Zugzwang Lite')." Third, although White begins the game with the initiative, if "Black retains a flexible position with good reactive possibilities, this initiative can be absorbed and often passes over to Black." Fourth, "The fact that White moves before Black often gives Black useful information".[] Suba likewise argues that White's advantage is actually less than a move, since White must tip his hand first, allowing Black to react to White's plans. Suba writes, "In terms of the mathematical games theory, chess is a game of complete information, and Black's information is always greater—by one move!"[]

    Rowson also notes that Black's chances increase markedly by playing good openings, which tend to be those with flexibility and latent potential, "rather than those that give White fixed targets or that try to take the initiative prematurely." He also emphasizes that "White has 'the initiative', not 'the advantage'. Success with Black depends on seeing beyond the initiative and thinking of positions in terms of 'potential'."[] These ideas are exemplified by the Hedgehog, a dynamic modern system against the English Opening that can arise from various . A typical position arises after 1.c4 c5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.g3 b6 4.Bg2 Bb7 e6 6.Nc3 Be7 7.d4 cxd4 8.Qxd4 d6 9.e4 a6.[] White has a , while Black often maneuvers his pieces on the last two of the board, but White "has to keep a constant eye on the possible liberating pawn thrusts b5 and d5."[] Watson remarks, "Black's goal is to remain elastic and flexible, with many options for his pieces, whereas White can become paralyzed at some point by the need to protect against various dynamic ."[] He also observes that, "White tends to be as much tied up by Black's latent activity as Black himself is tied up by White's space advantage."[] Moreover, attempts by White to overrun Black's position often rebound disastrously.[] An example of this is the following grandmaster game:

    Lev Polugaevsky&#;Ľubomír Ftáčnik, LucerneOlympiad 1. Nf3 Nf6 2. c4 c5 3. Nc3 e6 4. g3 b6 5. Bg2 Bb7 6. Be7 7. d4 cxd4 8. Qxd4 d6 9. Rd1 a6 b3 Nbd7 e4 Qb8 Bb2 Suba wrote of a similar Hedgehog position, "White's position looks ideal. That's the naked truth about it, but the 'ideal' has by definition one drawback—it cannot be improved."[] Nd2 Rd8 a4 Qc7 Qe3 Rac8 Qe2 Ne5 h3? According to Ftáčnik, f4 Neg4 Rf1 is better. h5! f4 Ng6 Nf3 Now Black breaks open the position in typical Hedgehog fashion. d5! cxd5?! Ftáčnik considers e5 or exd5 preferable. h4! Nxh4 Nxh4 gxh4 Qxf4 dxe6 fxe6 e5? Ftáčnik recommends instead Rxd8 Rxd8 Rd1. Bc5+ Kh1 Nh5! Qxh5 Qg3 Nd5 Other moves get mated immediately: Bxb7 Qh3#; Qe2 Qxh3#; Qg4 Bxg2#. Rxd5 Rf1 Qxg2+! Kxg2 Rd2+ 0–1[] White resigned. If Kg3 (the only legal response to the double check), Rg2+ Kf4 Rf8+ forces mate.[]

    An examination of reversed and symmetrical openings illustrates White's and Black's respective advantages:

    Reversed openings[edit]

    In a "reversed opening", White plays an opening typically played by Black, but with colors reversed and thus an extra tempo.[][] Evans writes of such openings, "If a defense is considered good for Black, it must be even better for White with a move in hand."[] Former World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik reportedly expressed the same view.[][] Watson questions this idea, citing Suba's thesis that Black, by moving second, has more complete information than White.[6] He writes, "everyone has such difficulties playing as White against a Sicilian Defence (1.e4 c5), but leading masters have no qualms about answering 1.c4 with e5."[] To explain this paradox, Watson discusses several different reversed Sicilian lines, showing how Black can exploit the disadvantages of various "extra" moves for White.[] He concludes,

    The point is, Black's set-up in the Sicilian is fine as a reactive system, but not worth much when trying to claim the initiative as White. This is true because Black is able to react to the specific plan White chooses; in Suba's terms, his information is indeed a move greater! Furthermore, he is able to take advantage of dead equal positions which White (hoping to retain the advantage of the first move) would normally avoid.[]

    Watson also observes, "Similarly, the Dutch Defence looks particularly sterile when White achieves the reversed positions a tempo up (it turns out that he has nothing useful to do!); and indeed, many standard Black openings are not very inspiring when one gets them as White, tempo in hand."[] GM Alex Yermolinsky likewise notes that GM Vladimir Malaniuk, a successful exponent of the Leningrad Dutch (1.d4 f5 2.g3 g6) at the highest levels,[][] "once made a deep impression on me by casually dismissing someone's suggestion that he should try 1.f4 as White. He smiled and said, 'That extra move's gonna hurt me.'"[]

    Yermolinsky also agrees with Alekhine's criticism of 1.g3 e5 2.Nf3,[] a reversed Alekhine's Defense, in Réti–Alekhine, Baden-Baden ,[] writing that Alekhine "understood the difference in opening philosophies for White and Black, and realized they just can't be the same! White is supposed to try for more than just obtaining a comfortable game in reversed colour opening set-ups, and, as the statistics show—surprisingly for a lot of people, but not for me—White doesn't even score as well as Black does in the same positions with his extra tempo and all."[]Howard Staunton, generally considered to have been the strongest player in the world from to ,[][][] made a similar point over years ago, writing that Owen's Defense (1.e4 b6) is playable for Black, but that 1.b3 is inferior to "the more customary [first] moves, from its being essentially defensive".[] The current view is that Owen's Defense is slightly better for White, while 1.b3 is playable but less likely to yield an opening advantage than 1.e4 or 1.d4.[]

    Watson concludes that

    1. "most moves have disadvantages as well as advantages, so an extra move is not always an unqualified blessing";
    2. "with his extra information about what White is doing, Black can better react to the new situation"; and
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